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Virginia Cooperative Extension - Knowledge for the CommonWealth

Crop and Soil Environmental News, September 2004

Do you know the hop clovers???

By: Ozzie Abaye, Extension Specialist, Alternative Crops

Large hop clover (Trifolium campestre Schreb.,)
Other common name:: low hop clover

Small hop clover (Trifolium dubium Sibth.,)
Other common name: least hop clover


Seed:


Large hop clover field


Peduncles often exceeding the subtending leaves.

Leaf shape and arrangement: Leaf: leaflets toothed from mid-blade to tip. Similar to low hop but larger leaves and flower heads than small hop clover (T. dubium Sibth). Distinguished from black medic by sessile (not stalked) attachment of central leaflets vs. petioled (stalked) attachment of black medic. Peduncles stout, stiff, straight often shorter than subtending leaves

Stolon/rhizome/roots ≠ No stolon or rhizome; upright, hairy branched stems

Inflorecence - Bright yellow flowers 20-30 in loose clusters on long stalks attached at leaf axils; flowers turn brown and fall-back when mature

Black medic
Medicago lupulina

Hop clover
T. agrarium same as large hop
Leaf, stipule
Leaf oval, terminal leaflet has a slightly longer petiolule/stlked than the other two leaflets that occur close to the stem; prominent veins; wedge-shaped with spur on tip of each leaflets
Flower/fruit
Yellow, cluster on a short stem, emerge from leaf axils, up to 50 individual flowers. Mature flower forms a tightly coiled black seedpod
Hair and stem
Leaves and stems sparsely hairy; Square stem, hairy and branch from stem

Stems are fairly erect and usually slightly branched
Low, small hop, smaller hop clover, suckling clover, lesser trefoil, least, sharmock Trifolium procumbens, dubium Sibth
Stipules obliquely ovate, one side broadly rounded , acute, sparsely pubescent. Terminal leaflet of each leaf is on a short stock/petiolule, leaflets with prominent veins
Bright yellow; larger than black medic and arranged in loose clusters; five to twelve individual flowers. Fewer flowers in the cluster than large hop clover

Has hairy, red, reclining stems, branches either creeping or upright
Large hop clover
T. campestre Schreb the same as also aureum)

Stipule linear-lancolate
Leaflets toothed from mid-blade to tip. Similar to low hop but larger leaves and flower heads than small hop clover (T. dubium Sibth). Distinguished from black medic by sessile (no stalked) attachment of central leaflets vs. petioled (stalked) attachment of black medic. Peduncles stout, stiff, straight often shorter than subtending leaves.

Peduncles often exceeding the subtending leaves.

Bright yellow flowers 20-30 in loose clusters on long stalks attached at leaf axils. Larger leaves attached to hairy branched stems

McCarty L. B., J. W. Everest, D. W. Hall, T. R. Murphy and F. Yelverton. 2001. Color Atlas of Turfgrass Weeds. p. 165, 171, 172. Sleeping Bear Press. Chelsea, MI.

http://www.grzyby.pl/rosliny/gatunki/Trifolium_campestre.htm
http://www.bioimages.org.uk/index.htm
Large hop clover (Trifolium campestre Schreb.,)
Other common name: low hop clover
Small hop clover (Trifolium dubium Sibth.,)
Other common name: least hop clover
Life cycle: Winter annual

Distribution and Adaptation

Morphology/Growth pattern

Use and Potential Problem

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