Vineyard and Winery Information Series:
Vol. 21 No. 1, January-February 2006
Dr. Tony K. Wolf, Viticulture Extension Specialist
Ashley's responsibilities are largely extension, a role that she will fulfill by assisting Virginia Cooperative Extension agents and growers with grape disease diagnostic and management assistance, production of web-based learning resources, and applied research. Initial research efforts will center on collaborative efforts with Dr. Anton Baudoin's survey of Virginia vineyards for fungicide resistant strains of downy mildew and completion of certain aspects of the grapevine yellows research that was conducted by our lab in 2004 and 2005. I've asked Ashley to share her vision in her words.
A. Myers. I am delighted to introduce myself as a Grape Pathology Extension Specialist. George Washington once said, "I know of no pursuit in which more real and important services can be rendered to any country than by improving agriculture." The fundamentals of fine wine production lie in agriculture and agriculture is heavily impacted by pest and disease issues. Coming from rural North Carolina, I am very aware of the issues that we face when producing agricultural crops. I hope to provide a service to the Virginia wine industry by assisting in our struggles to control grape diseases and thereby continue Virginia's pursuit of quality wine production.
For generations agriculture has been the source of income for my family. I have continued this "tradition" through my education and work experiences. Plant pathology became my focus during my undergraduate education at North Carolina State University. I began my graduate studies in NC State's Plant Pathology department in the fall of 2003 under the direction of Dr. Turner Sutton. My thesis project focused on identifying the primary insect vectors of Pierce's Disease of grapes to Vinifera vines in the southeast.
My interest in wine grape pest management and diseases specifically arose directly from my experience with viticulture at my family's vineyard, Laurel Gray Vineyards, in the Yadkin Valley of North Carolina. In 2001, two acres of Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon were planted. In the spring of this year, new plantings will bring our acreage to eight with six varietals of Vinifera vines.
My education and experiences have provided me with first-hand knowledge of the pest and diseases we are facing as a mid-Atlantic wine industry. I believe that by addressing the appropriate issues we can gain the information and tools needed to improve disease management. Under the direction of Dr. Tony Wolf and the VA wine industry these issues will be focused and knowledge will be gained. I look forward to my first season as a member of the Virginia wine community and anticipate visiting many of your vineyards and working with you!
Ashley will be presenting a report on her Pierce's Disease research at the upcoming Virginia Vineyards Association's annual meeting in Charlottesville and can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
Virginia Tech's 2006 PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDES are available on-line in PDF format and are divided into three volumes: Field Crops (456-016), Home Grounds and Animals (456-018), and Horticultural and Forest Crops (456-017), which includes the grapes component. Each of the volumes is divided into sections. The web site is: http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/pmg/#hort .
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A vineyard on Virginia's Eastern Shore experienced an unexplained increase in grape downy mildew intensity in July 2005, despite a spray program that would have been expected to provide excellent control. Four isolates of downy mildew from this vineyard were tested by applying pyraclostrobin (as Pristine) or azoxystrobin (Abound) at labeled rates to small potted grape plants, and inoculating the following day with the downy mildew isolates. Both Pristine and Abound gave poor control of all four of these downy mildew isolates.
A total of about 20 downy mildew isolates were obtained in the summer and fall of 2005 from a total of five vineyards. This is not enough for a comprehensive picture of the status of downy mildew in our area, but testing by bioassay revealed that in addition to the Eastern Shore site, one vineyard in central Virginia and two in western North Carolina also had a high proportion of downy mildew resistant to Pristine and Abound, and that the level of resistance is enough to render Abound and Pristine nearly ineffective against these strains. Two other strobilurin (also known as QoI) fungicides, Sovran and Flint, were not tested because they are known to be less effective against downy mildew, and I expect that they would be ineffective against the resistant strains as well.
Strobilurin resistance of grape downy mildew has not previously been reported in North America, but has been present for several years in a number of European countries and in Brazil. FRAC (Fungicide Resistance Action Committee, an industry cooperation of agrochemical companies, website at www.frac.info) has formulated recommendations for these situations. Those recommendations include to only apply strobilurins preventatively (before disease has developed), to apply strobilurins no more than three times per season, and to always tank-mix a strobilurin fungicide with an effective downy mildew fungicide from a DIFFERENT fungicide group.
Because resistance surfaced in three widely separated locations, we should assume that the risk is widespread in the mid-Atlantic area. Virginia growers should be very careful about relying on strobilurins by themselves when protection against downy mildew is needed, especially if this group of fungicides has been commonly used in the vineyard in past years. But even if a vineyard has not seen much use, caution is advised because downy mildew travels easily and could come in from more heavily treated sites. I recommend tank-mixing any strobilurin with a material such as captan, mancozeb, copper, Ridomil, phosphorous acid, or Aliette, with the caveat that I have not tried all possible tank mixes; contact the manufacturer if in doubt.
What about POWDERY mildew? Grape powdery mildew resistance to strobilurin fungicides has been observed in New York and Pennsylvania since 2002. We have some evidence that it may be present in Virginia as well. We therefore further recommend tank-mixing most strobilurins with an effective powdery mildew fungicide, such as sulfur, Nova, Elite, Quintec, or Endura, One exception is Pristine, a fungicide mixture that already contains another effective powdery mildew fungicide, namely the same ingredient that is in Endura.
I will discuss this topic at the upcoming Virginia Vineyards Association meeting in Charlottesville. We intend to broaden our survey of downy and powdery mildew resistance during the 2006 growing season, and gratefully acknowledge financial support provided by the Virginia Wine Board in 2005.
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Is your soil ageing like a fine wine?
During the winter season an agriculturalist has, perhaps, more time to delve into those subjects which tend to have more profound influence on improving vineyard quality. One such subject having long term implications on vineyard productivity and, therefore, sustainability is the maintenance of soil quality in the vineyard. One may consider seasonal vineyard practices, such shoot positioning or fungicide applications, to be fixed to a vine's phenological stage or seasonal temperature and moisture. Other seasonal management decisions inflict changes in characteristics of soil such as tillage, application of fertilizer and organic matter, or cover cropping; all of which impose possible long term effects on soil quality. This article focuses on methods proposed to measure soil quality (often referred to as "soil health") and methods by which those attributes might be maintained over time.
Currently, there is no standard set of guidelines for measuring soil quality. Soil is often the first medium in a vineyard which is manipulated in order to initiate changes in growth patterns of vines. Growers will frequently till soil to manage weed competition or incorporate lime, add fertilizer and adjust soil moisture through irrigation. Many of those activities further inflict changes to soil structure, more obviously if compaction is caused by farm machinery. In order to understand the effects of vineyard management on soil quality, one must first have a means of measuring soil quality factors and a reference to interpret numerical data and physical evaluation. Soil pH and mineral nutrient levels are indeed very important for vine health and productivity, however those topics are generally well covered in existing literature and guidelines have been established for optimizing production by way of lime and fertilizer applications. Some of the less-frequently analyzed quantitative (numerical) measures are discussed here, including cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), soil texture and bulk density and soil microbial activity (SMA). In a future article, the qualitative (physical/visual) evaluations will be discussed including those of soil structure, color and odor.
Soil Texture & Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)
The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of a soil is often used as the primary measure of nutrient availability to plants. Cation exchange capacity is the total amount of negative charge a soil has to attract basic cations (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+) and is defined on soil tests as the sum of the exchangeable basic cations plus total soil acidity. Soil texture, pH, and soil organic matter all influence the CEC. The texture, or percentage of sand, silt and clay content of a soil, does not change within the lifetime of a vineyard, provided erosion does not occur. A one-time measurement of soil texture is sufficient to understand the nutrient holding capability of a soil. For example, a soil with greater clay content will have higher CEC because the structure of clay offers more surface area than do silt or sand. Soil management practices that increase organic matter content or pH will also increase CEC as described below. Tracking soil CEC over time is therefore useful for understanding changes in soil quality with respect to nutrient availability. Fortunately, the CEC is almost always included in a standard soil analysis and, thus, old soil test records may be useful for tracking changes in soil health even if organic matter or other soil quality factors were not analyzed.
Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
I am surprised by how often SOM is not included in routine soil analyses. The cost for this assay is not always included in basic soil test packages but the extra expense is minimal ($3.00 in-state at Virginia Tech Soil Testing Laboratory). The typical SOM of vineyards in Virginia falls within the range of about 2 to 6% and is most commonly measured by oxidation of carbon. Organic matter is a mixture of living organisms (roots, microorganisms), dead organisms (plant/root debris, dead microorganisms) and humus, which is a well-decomposed form of SOM. Humus is perhaps the more mysterious of those components in the mixture, consisting of large, complex, stable organic molecules that are resistant to further decomposition. The complex structure of humus holds more water, nutrients and chemicals than clay and strengthens soil structure, thus humus is very important to soil quality (2). The importance of humus is also important from the standpoint of sustaining soil fertility. For example, when organic matter is added to soil, a portion of that matter is reorganized into stable humus (one which is capable of exchanging nutrient cations). This process, called humification, acts to slow down mineralization (the return of a soil's organic components to their original mineral forms), thus reducing leaching of essential cations and increasing nutrient reserves available to roots.
A typical fertilizer regime that simply adds specific cations (i.e., Ca, Mg, K) may, in the long term, be less efficient than an approach which retains nutrients in the organo-mineral complex of the soil. Nutrients associated with clay minerals or humus are also less likely to become leached or eroded from surface soil. The idea of enhancing nutrient availability is already practiced by those growers who strive to maintain their soils near neutral soil pH (about 6.0 - 6.4) in order to improve availability of macronutrients in the cation exchange. As with soil pH, the humus component of SOM also indirectly affects nutrient availability by binding more strongly with aluminum and other heavy metals than with macronutrients, increasing nutrient availability even if soil pH does not change (1). Maintenance of SOM levels is an additional method for sustaining nutrient availability and, as with soil pH, frequent monitoring is essential to determine if SOM is affected by farming practices.
How is this helpful?
Let's review an example of how certain management practices influence SOM. A grower may decide to deep-plow a vineyard block prior to replanting in order to break-up an existing hard pan near the soil surface. By mixing the top 16 inches of soil, the grower is exposing the area of greatest SOM to more oxygen, water, and carbon decomposing microorganisms than if left undisturbed. Just as in a pile of composting leaf litter, if left unturned, the rate of carbon decomposition will be significantly slower than that of a frequently mixed pile. Soil tillage will increase the decomposition rate of SOM, thus adding organic matter to frequently tilled soil would be a sound strategy for maintaining soil fertility and compensating for nutrients lost by mineralization.
These examples may appear as common sense to those who maintain SOM levels in their vineyard soil by occasionally adding composted grape pomace or manures, but even the most diligent in those practices will find difficulty in determining rates of organic matter to apply and in measuring impacts on soil quality. If a grower observes a decrease in CEC over time, a general rule of thumb states that every 1% addition of compost (by weight) increases the CEC by 0.05 meq/100g (1). General rules such as these will allow a grower to predict impacts of organic matter inputs to soil, although periodical measurement of the quantitative factors and good record keeping is the best method for tracking changes in soil health.
The bulk density of a soil is defined as the mass of oven-dry soil per unit volume and is dependent upon soil texture components, SOM and small rock particles (3). Bulk density is measured from intact cores of soil. Intact, "undisturbed" soil cores retain their natural structure, allowing one to account for the volume of the soil composed of air space. Once the bulk density of a soil is known, additional calculations can be made to determine soil porosity and furthermore the water infiltration and drainage qualities of a soil. Drainage is debatably the most important soil quality factor associated with vineyard sites in the mid-Atlantic. Larger pores will drain excess soil moisture more rapidly than will small pores. As water drains from soil, pore space is filled by air and roots commence growth. If bulk density increases over time, it could be due to compaction of the soil. Additionally, continuous cultivation of soil may decrease the number of large pores in soil leading to decreased water drainage and decreased root growth (3). Management practices that encourage the growth of roots, earthworms and fungi in soil and decrease soil compaction are important for sustaining bulk density over time.
Soil Microbial Activity (SMA)
Occasionally grape growers will inquire about alternative laboratory analyses to quantify the soil microbial activity (SMA) of their vineyard, specifically that which is located in the vine row. Soil microorganisms play an important role in decomposing organic matter into humus, providing nutrients, and improving soil structure. Some soil laboratories will perform specific analyses to determine quantities of soil organisms which affect plant health; most notably, plant pathogenic nematodes. More recently, various analyses for determining total microbial activity or activity of specific groups of organisms are being added to the list of analyses. Analyses of the total mass of organisms in the soil or "soil biomass" encompasses activity of bacteria, fungi, yeast, actinomycetes and many other microorganisms that contribute to nutrient cycling whereas analyses of specific organisms measure functional groups, such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria . Soil microbial activity is more often measured as a whole due to complications with extracting and enumerating specific microorganisms, usually tied in closely with SOM. These types of measurements do not specify the types of active organisms and estimations are derived from measuring soil respiration, enzymes or molecules associated with active microorganisms.
Results from SMA analyses are not easily interpreted and are therefore often not included in routine soil test. There are no standard guidelines for target levels of microbial activity of soils nor are there for individual groups of organisms due to variability of one soil to the next. Additionally, the variability in soil conditions from one sampling occasion to the next, such as moisture and temperature, may cause fluctuations in SMA regardless of vineyard management practices. Another disadvantage to SMA analyses is the high cost for the analysis. Alternatively, grape growers who wish to compare soil management practices on treated compared to untreated rows for controlled, on-farm experiments may find utility in SMA analysis. For those interested in analysis of SMA, a list of laboratories is available online from the National Sustainable Agricultural Information (ATTRA) at: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/soil-lab.html.
Long term monitoring of soil quality factors
It should be noted that changes in soil quality occur over a time frame of many years, and only the most extreme of events, such as massive erosion, are measurable within a shorter time frame. It may be the case that a soil proposed for your new vineyard is below its potential quality due to previous land management. In the event that you wish to improve a highly weathered, mineralized soil, increasing (rather than maintaining) a soil pH and organic matter, and thus increasing CEC and MA may be desired. The emphasis of this review is not to determine the best numerical ranges for the soil quality factors discussed above. The objective, rather, is to encourage the assessment of soil quality at any phase of your vineyards lifespan (even before planting your vines) and the periodic tracking of those quality factors over time. Records of soil quality factors enable a grower to rate the effectiveness of current soil management practices and determine if long term quality objectives are being met.
Further information on measuring soil quality:
Outreach activities, promotion of soil health issues and soil sampling protocols are currently being investigated by the Cornell Soil Health Work Team: http://www.hort.cornell.edu/soilhealth/
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(Thanks to Penn State extension agent Mark Chien for compiling this listing of up-coming regional events)
What: Vineyard Development Workshop
When: February 16, 2006
Where: Crossing Vineyards, Bucks County, PA
Details: The workshop begins at 9 am and lasts until 4:30 p.m. The cost is $75 which includes lunch, breaks and handouts. Pre-registration is requested. Space is limited to 40 on a first-come basis. For more information and registration, please call Marilyn at 717-394-6851. You can find information and directions to Crossing Vineyards at http://www.crossingvineyards.com/.
Other regional meetings:
2-4 Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture (PASA) annual conference. Penn Stater Hotel, State College, PA. "Farming for the Future". This amazing event is PASA's signature and our main vehicle for community building. Widely regarded as the best of its kind in the East, this diverse 3-day spectacular brings together an audience of over 1,500 farmers, processors, consumers, students, environmentalists, and business and community leaders annually. For complete information and registration, go to the PASA web site at http://www.pasafarming.org/
3-5 Cold Climate Wine and Grape Conference. Kahler Grand Hotel in Rochester, MN. The theme of this year's meeting is Northern Viticulture Coming of Age: The Business of Growing Grapes and Making Wine in the North. Sponsored by the MN Grape Growers Assoc. For information, please go to http://mngrapes.org/ccgw_conference.html.
4 Pruning clinic. Upper Marlboro UMD Center. Maryland. Contact Dick Penna for information at 301-432-2338.
4-6 21st Annual Mid-America Grape and Wine Conference will feature a symposium on grapevine rootstocks at the Tan-Tar-A Resort in Osage Beach, MO. For information and registration, please contact Gloria Smith at 417.926.4105 or visit http://mtngrv.smsu.edu/mvec/.
5-10 Sixth International Cool Climate Symposium for Enology and Viticulture. Christchurch, New Zealand. The theme is "winegrowing for the future". Program includes a long list of international speakers. ICCS started in New York and has become a great success. Many organized vineyard tour options. Visit their web site at http://www.iccs2006.org.nz.
10/11 Virginia Vineyard Association Annual Winter Meeting. Omni Hotel, Charlottesville, VA. Two days of practical information for growers and wine makers and research information from VA Tech. For more information, please visit http://www.virginiavineyardsassociation.com/.
15/16 Ontario Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Brock University, Ste Catherines, Ontario. Dr. Terry Bates, viticulturist from Cornell is a featured speaker. For more information, please go to http://fruitveggie.hortport.com/Current_Issue.htm.
18 Pruning clinic. Western MD Research and Extension Center, Keedysville, MD. Contact Dick Penna for information at 301-432-2338.
22 Pruning Workshop. Manatawny Creek Vineyards. Douglassville, PA. Please see Jan 18 entry. Directions at www.manatawnycreek.com/.
25 Pruning clinic. Golden Run Vineyard in Maryland. Contact Dick Penna for information.
1-3 Michigan Wine Industry Annual Meeting. Crystal Mountain Resort. Thompsonville, MI. Wine marketing writer Elizabeth Slater will offer two workshops and provide individual consulting. Other sessions include Scott Labs on finishing wine for bottling and wine makers' tasting. Find more details at http://www.michiganwines.com/index.html.
3/4 56th Annual Finger Lakes Grape Growers Convention and Trade Show. Holiday Inn. Waterloo. NY. Practical information for growers and wine makers as well as latest research from NYSAES. Breakout sessions on soil health and root biology, grower technology innovations, sprayer technology, business management issues and ิthe basics' for new growers on Friday, research, pest management updates and trade show on Saturday. For more information, please call 315-536-5134 or visit http://www.cce.cornell.edu/programs/finger-lakes-grape/. .
4 Maryland Grape Growers Association Annual Meeting. Turf Valley Resort, Ellicott City, MD. Alice Wise from Cornell Cooperative Extension on Long Island will talk about sustainable viticulture practices. Ed Boyce from Black Ankle Vineyard will talk about the development of their vineyard using biodynamic principles and Phil Roth from Roth Vineyard in Fairfield, PA will speak on his experience using compost in his vineyard. A panel discussion with wine makers and growers will discuss this important relationship. For more information, visit the MGGA web site at www.marylandwine.com/mgga/ or contact Dick Penna at 310-432-2338 for information.
11 Grape Expectations: A Viticultural and Enological Symposium. Forsgate Country Club. Monroe Twp, NJ. A full day of viticulture and enology topics focusing on practical aspects of wine growing in New Jersey. Mystery wine and awards for NJ wines are presented. For information and registration, please contact Dr. Gary Pavlis at 609-758-7311.
13 Grape Disease and Pesticide Applicator's Core Credit Workshop. Lancaster Farm and Home Center. 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. The morning session will focus on fungal disease prevention and grape berry moth control for the upcoming season. Dr. Jim Travis and Dr. Mike Saunders will provide their latest research. The afternoon session will offer 6 core credits for PA licensed applicators. Pre-registration required. Call Mark Chien for information 717.394.6851
12-15 30th Annual Wineries Unlimited. Lancaster Host Resort. Lancaster, PA. Trade show dates: March 13-14. The largest trade show and seminar program in the East will have a special anniversary program, with Decanter Man of the Year Ernst Loosen to give keynote address and speak in seminars on the major varietal theme, Riesling. Sustainability is the conference theme, with one day workshops for newcomers (3/12) and for bottling issues (3/15). Trade show features 175 exhibitors, 250 booths. For more information and online registration, visit www.vwm-online.com/wu.
14 Winemaker Technical Meeting. Lancaster Host Resort. PA. Room to be announced. 2-5 p.m. See entry for January 18. Regional wine makers are encouraged to attend and bring wines from the 2005 vintage. Problem wines are especially encouraged.
15 New Grape Grower Workshop in association with Wineries Unlimited. Host Resort. Lancaster, PA. 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. This intensive, full-day overview is directed at people who have just started a vineyard or plan to start a commercial vineyard in the Mid-Atlantic regions. It is team taught by Dr. Joe Fiola (U Md), Mark Chien (Penn State) and Fritz Westover (VA Tech). It covers all topics associated with developing and operating a commercial vineyard including site selection, grape market, vineyard economics, equipment and supplies, site preparation, varieties and rootstocks, trellis systems, disease, pest and weed control and management into the first year. Registration fee is $135 and includes lunch, breaks and handouts. Register through Penn State Coop Ext. Contact Mark Chien at 717.394.6851 for more information and registration.
19-22 Terroir 2006: A Dialogue between Earth Scientists and Winemakers. Davis, California. This international conference will explore how aspects of terroir can be studied scientifically in ways that are of use to the wine industry. Planned sessions include * What is Terroir? * Terroir Around the World * Geology, Soils, Nutrients and Terroir * Climate, Water, and Terroir * Expressions of Terroir in Vine and Grape Physiology * Marketing the Romance of Terroir * Terroir and the Sensory Characteristics of Wine * Impact of Global Climate Change * New Techniques for Studying Terroir * Terroir and Cuisine. For more information, go to http://terroir2006.ucdavis.edu
24 Tentative: Viticulture Workshop with invited speaker(s) from France and the Mid-Atlantic region addressing soil, water and vine relations. Site to be announced. Please hold the date. For more information, please call Mark Chien.
30 Lake Erie Grape Growers Convention. Fredonia State University, Fredonia, NY. Breakout sessions with information on process and wine grapes with a trade show. For information call Linda Aures at 715-672-5296 or visit http://.lenewa.netsync.net/public/lergphom.htm .
5-7 35th Annual New York Wine Industry Workshop. NYSAES, Geneva, NY. The program includes seminars on wine marketing hosted by NY Wine and Grape Foundation and the annual Unity Dinner. Also included is a trade show and technical seminar focus on wine bottling. Information and registration at http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/fst/faculty/henick/events.html.
8 Pennsylvania Association of Winegrowers Spring Vineyard Walk Around and Annual Meeting. Spyglass Hill Vineyard in Northumberland County. 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The program will have a sustainable focus with Alan York, a well-known organic consultant from Sonoma as the featured speaker. The annual meeting is an important opportunity for PA growers, independent and estate, to set the agenda for the coming year. Please join and support PAW. For more information, please visit the PAW web site at http://www.pawinegrowers.com/.
8-10 Pennsylvania Wine Association Annual Meeting. Wyndham Hotel Harrisburg/Hershey. Harrisburg, PA. Invited speakers focus on current topics important to the PA wine industry. Enology, wine marketing and viticulture topics are all on the program. Pesticide credits available. Awards banquet and annual PWA business meeting. For information, please call Jennifer at 717-234-1844.
16/17 Erie Region Vit/Enol Workshop. Location to be announced. Offered by Penn State and Cornell. Full day of vineyard visits. Please call to get your vineyard on the schedule. Speakers include Dr. Jim Travis, Dr. Stephen Menke, Hans Walter-Peterson, Andy Muza and Mark Chien.
TBA Twilight meeting. Chester County. Vineyard to be announced. Free. No pre-registration required. Pre-bloom disease and pest control. Canopy management and weed control. Vineyard tour by owner.
7 Maryland Grape Growers' Association Field Day. Upper Marlboro UMD Center. Visit the MGGA web site for details. www.marylandwine.com/mgga/
25 Vineyard Management Seminar. Linden Vineyards. Linden, VA. The focus on this session is the finer points of day to day management of a producing vineyard. Canopy management to impact quality and flavors is the main emphasis. Horticultural decisions such as pruning, training, pest management and vine nutrition are also covered. Pre-registration required. Limited space. http://www.lindenvineyards.com/.
28-30 American Society for Enology and Viticulture Annual Convention. Sacramento, CA. ASEV is the professional association of the U.S. wine industry. The focus is on viticulture and enology research with a large trade show. For more information, go to www.asev.org.
9-12 American Society for Enology and Viticulture Eastern Section Annual Meeting. Rochester, NY. This is an important opportunity for non-western states growers to hear the latest research results from their regions include student papers and Viticulture Consortium projects. Pre-conference tour of Finger Lakes wineries is available. For more information, visit the ASEV-ES web site at http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/fst/asev/
13 Advanced Wine Making Workshop. Linden Vineyards. Linden, VA. The finer points of artisan winemaking are covered is this seminar with time spent in the vineyard, cellar, classroom and tasting. Style and quality issues are the focus. Participants should have some winemaking experience or have taken the Winemaking Basics Seminar. Pre-registration required. Limited space. http://www.lindenvineyards.com/
17 Pennsylvania Association of Winegrowers Annual Summer Vineyard Walk Around. At the Fruit Research and Extension in Biglerville, PA. 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Tour of variety and pathology experiments run by Dr. Jim Travis and his team at FREC and tasting of research wines by extension enologist Stephen Menke. Registration and pre-registration required. Pesticide credits are available. For information, call Mark Chien or Stephen Menke.
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Vineyard Manager/Operator Needed: A well-established commercial vineyard on six acres between Orlean and Hume in Fauquier County, Virginia is in need of management starting with the 2006 growing season. The grapes are Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Cabernet Franc and they have contributed to a number of award-winning Virginia wines over the past several years. Potential managers could include a nearby winery, another vineyard operator, viticultural students or a part-time couple or individual, who would share production profits. Please e-mail Frank Besson at email@example.com for more information or an appointment to visit the vineyard and discuss the opportunity.
Vineyard worker needed: Full time with benefits with an established vineyard in Madison, VA. Duties include all aspects of vineyard work. We will train the right candidate. Experience is a plus. Please contact Oliver or Frantz at 540 948 3321 or at firstname.lastname@example.org
ASSISTANT VINEYARD MANAGER wanted to operate equipment and to supervise labor in maintaining 18-acre modern vineyard in Middleburg Virginia area. Call Rachel Martin, Boxwood Winery & Vineyard 540-687-8778 or email email@example.com
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"Viticulture Notes" is a bi-monthly newsletter issued by Dr. Tony K. Wolf, Viticulture Extension Specialist with Virginia Tech's Alson H. Smith, Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Winchester, Virginia. If you would like to receive "Viticulture Notes" as well as Dr. Bruce Zoecklein's "Vinter's Corner" by mail, contact Dr. Wolf at:
Dr. Tony K. Wolf
AHS Agricultural Research and Extension Center
595 Laurel Grove Road
Winchester, VA 22602
or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Commercial products are named in this publication for informational purposes only. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, and Virginia State University do not endorse these products and do not intend discrimination against other products that also may be suitable.
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