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Virginia Cooperative Extension -
 Knowledge for the CommonWealth

Viticulture Notes

Vineyard and Winery Information Series:
Vol. 21 No. 2, March-April 2006

Dr. Tony K. Wolf, Viticulture Extension Specialist

Table of Contents

  1. Current Situation
  2. Introduction to late-season fruit rots
  3. Observations on New Zealand grape/wine production
  4. Upcoming meetings
  5. Job position announcements

I. Current situation

The recent spate of unusually warm weather has increased the urgency of final pruning as we head towards bud-break. Questions arose back in January and early February about the possible effects of warm periods in the winter deacclimating buds and predisposing them to winter injury. That's always a possibility as the winter progresses. My research technician, Kay Miller, has been monitoring dormant bud cold hardiness of Traminette and Viognier this winter. The vines are part of our training system comparison at Winchester and the data for Viognier through late-February are shown in the accompanying figure. Daily min and max temperature (°C) traces are plotted against the left axis, while the temperature (°C) that kills approximately 50% of the buds in lab tests is presented on the right axis, and is depicted as symbols below the air temperature traces. The different symbols represent three different training systems - as an aside, cold hardiness was unaffected by training, even though training greatly affected crop levels. The simple point to make here is that Viognier was still quite cold-hardy as late as the third week of February and was little affected by short periods of warm weather in February. The "hardiness" level of about -20C corresponds to below 0°F. If you're still finishing pruning, it would be worthwhile to check for any winter injury. I did hear of some problems that appeared to occur relatively early in the fall or early winter.

Virginia Tech's 2006 PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDES are available on-line in PDF format and are divided into three volumes: Field Crops (456-016), Home Grounds and Animals (456-018), and Horticultural and Forest Crops (456-017), which includes the grapes component. Each of the volumes is divided into sections. The web site is: .

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II. . Introduction to late-season fruit rots.

Ashley Meyers, Grape Pathology Extension Specialist

The most common and usually serious, fungal disease outbreaks occur in Virginia due to a failure to control one or more of the three major fungal diseases: black rot, powdery mildew, and downy mildew. In the past little attention has been paid to late season rot diseases or "rot complex"; however, we are finding that control of late season diseases plays an increasingly important role in achieving good wine quality, and is of growing importance in the Mid-Atlantic states. In North Carolina, the "rot complex" has caused greater than 50% crop loss (T.B. Sutton, personal communication). In previous years in Pennsylvania, "bunch rot" was caused by sour rot or Botrytis (grey mold); now Pennsylvania growers are reporting ripe rot, and in one vineyard macrophoma rot or soft rot. As of yet, bitter rot has not been found in Pennsylvania (J.W. Travis, personal communication). In the 1990s we realized bunch rot may be caused by something other than botrytis by isolating ripe rot, macrophoma rot, and Phomopsis causing fungi from fruit and in Virginia, suspect that these rot complexes have been present, with little acknowledgement, for many years.

In reading the above, you may have gotten the impression that the nomenclature is a bit confusing - you would be correct. Growers in the Mid-Atlantic generally call these late season rot complexes secondary rots or bunch rot, and the meaning of the terms is rarely well defined. The traditional definition of bunch rot is provided by Dr. Turner Sutton of North Carolina State University as "anything that rots the grapes". At least 70 species of fungi and several bacteria are associated with bunch rot; including primary and secondary pathogens. Primary pathogens include the fungi causing phomopsis, black rot, bitter rot, botrytis, macrophoma rot, and ripe rot. Secondary pathogens are considered wound invaders and include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Alternaria, and yeasts. Secondary rots refer to anything that rots the grapes except botrytis, black rot, phomopsis, and maybe anthracnose. These rots were coined "secondary" because generally they have not been common. The name has nothing to do with the primary or secondary biological status of the pathogens. I feel it is less confusing to call these diseases late season rots, which is the umbrella term for ripe rot, bitter rot, macrophoma rot, and sour rot.

Ripe rot is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, its sexual stage Glomerella cingulata, and C. acutatum - the most important fruit fungal pathogens worldwide. The three taxa are very different; however, they produce indistinguishable symptoms. The pathogens overwinter as mummies and infected pedicels. Ripe rot occurs on grapes as they mature and ripen, and tends to be a disease of warm, humid conditions. However, ripe rot has been found in surprising amounts in North Carolina's cooler climate vineyards (T.B. Sutton, personal communication). Conidia produced in abundance during spring rainy periods serve as the primary source of inoculum. Conidia are spread to other parts of the vine or other vines by splashing or blowing rain. Infection can occur throughout the season, however fruit infection is usually not observed until fruit reaches 20”Brix and symptoms do not develop until ripening. Sporulation on ripe fruit near harvest provides a source of secondary inoculum and frequent rains during this period can result in severe crop loss. Preliminary observations by Dr. Jim Travis at Pennsylvania State University revealed greater incidence of ripe rot on Scott-Henry trellising than on VSP (due to rain-splash of spores) and more ripe rot on the lower canopy of Scott-Henry than on the upper canopy. The most obvious symptom of ripe rot is the rotting of ripe fruit. Affected berries develop circular, reddish brown spots of decay on their skins. Spots later enlarge to encompass the entire berry. The rotting fruit is characteristically covered with salmon or orange-colored conidia. The berries eventually shrivel and decay, and may drop or remain attached to the vine. Foliar symptoms of ripe rot have not been observed in the United States.

Like ripe rot, bitter rot is a disease of ripe fruit and at times it can be difficult to distinguish between the two. Bitter rot is caused by the fungal pathogen Greeneria uvicola that attacks tissue in humid, warm conditions. Berries affected by bitter rot have a bitter flavor (hence the name) that is carried through the winemaking process and gives the wine an unpleasant bitter or burnt taste. The pathogen overwinters in dead wood and mummies, and may infect any injured tissue. Around bloom the fungus invades the dead cells of the pedicel, where it remains latent until veraison to three weeks preharvest. It then invades the pedicel and moves into the berry, where conidia are produced within four days. Bird pecking, insect injury or cracking of berries will permit secondary spread by conidial infection of berries. In order for infection to occur, the fungus appears to need a 12 - 14 hour wetting period; however duration of wetness is not as important as temperature, where mid-70s to mid-80s is ideal. The period of fruit susceptibility is greatest from bloom until veraison. Occasional leaf flecking is observed (not a significant problem) but fruit rot characterized by the appearance of fruiting structures (dark spores) on the berry surface in concentric rings that radiate from the pedicel is most important. Early visual symptoms look like sunburn with a small, light brown lesion on the berry. Light colored berries usually turn brown and the surface of blue berries has a roughened, sparkly appearance. Within a few days the berry softens and is easily detached. Berries that shrivel look much like berries affected by black rot, ripe rot, or Phomopsis. In North Carolina a study was done to determine the relative susceptibility of varieties; Norton and Traminette were more resistant to bitter rot while Seyval, Petit Verdot, Viognier, Tannat, and others were more susceptible.

Macrophoma rot, caused by the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea, is an important disease on muscadines in the southeastern United States, however it also affects Vinifera. Very little information is available about the disease. It overwinters on infected fruit or dead wood. The optimum temperature for growth and sporulation is 28”C or 82.4”F. Conidia are released during wet weather and are disseminated by wind and rain splash. Sporulation is not as common on the outside of the berries as with ripe rot and bitter rot. Symptoms appear as a very soft rot, where skin is easily removed by rubbing a finger across the berry. The fruit does occasionally rupture, providing an entrance for secondary invaders.

Sour rot appears as portions of rotten berries in a bunch or scattered rotten fruit within a bunch, but is often first detected by its characteristic, vinegar-like odor. Multiple secondary pathogens have been associated with sour rot including Alternaria, Aspergillus, yeast, Penicillium, Acetobacter, and Rhizopus. Hail damage, cracks, splitting, rain swell, and injury by birds, insects and primary pathogens allow secondary pathogens to establish and cause sour rot. Currently there are no effective chemical treatments, and control is approached by minimizing other diseases and injuries. Varieties vary in their susceptibility, with tight clustered varieties and high vigor vines being more susceptible.

Control of the late season rots involve cultural practices combined with appropriate fungicide applications. Vineyard sites that afford rapid drying of grapevines are preferred to those where air movement is impeded. Fungal spores overwinter in the cordons, canes, mummies, and on dried leaves on the vine and in the vineyard floor, therefore, minimize dead wood in the vine, remove mummies, and remove pruned canes or chop with a flail mower. There is some evidence in North Carolina that cane pruning (versus more traditional spur pruning) may reduce disease by ~60%, however making big cuts to remove cordons increases the likelihood of trunk diseases such as Eutypa and a pruning wound paint should be considered. Shoot positioning and leaf pulling are especially important, allowing sunlight and air to penetrate the interiors of the vines, improving air flow around the clusters, and maximizing fungicide penetration into clusters. Selecting varieties with loose clusters, thick skins, or those that have demonstrated resistance is also helpful. There is not one fungicide that can be considered the "silver bullet" for all late season rots; however Captan does a very good job controlling Phomopsis, bitter rot, ripe rot, and botrytis and has a much shorter preharvest interval than does mancozeb. The following is a table composed by Dr. Sutton outlining the relative effectiveness of fungicides on each of the rots:

Fungicide Phomopsis Bitter rot Ripe rot Macrophoma Black rot Botrytis
QoI y ++ +++ +++ ++++ +++ ++
Topsin ++ +++ + +++ + ++
Captan ++++ +++ ++++ ++++ + +
Elevate/Endura 0 0 0 0 0 ++++
DMI z 0 ++++ 0 ++ ++++ 0
Copper + +? +? +? + 0
Mancozeb ++++ ++++ ++++ ++ ++ 0
Scala           ++++
y QoI fungicides include Abound, Sovran, Flint, and Pristine
z DMI (or SI) fungicides include Nova, Elite, Rubigan, and Procure

The 2006 Pest Management Guide outlines sprays for powdery mildew, black rot, downy mildew, and Phomopsis (; however, late season rots are not included. Black rot control begins at budbreak and continues until second cover (when berries are pea-sized but before cluster close); careful choice of black rot controlling fungicides will also help control the late season rots. The ball is dropped, however, from second cover until harvest when the fungi that cause these late season rot diseases are very much active and producing secondary infections. Remember that primary infections occur during the prebloom to postbloom period. In order to manage these late season rots, you should be prepared to extend the use of materials (captan for example) into harvest. Be careful planning your spray programs and be sure to consider resistance development, as well as preharvest intervals mandated by the label and possibly by the winery buying your fruit. Should growers have questions about disease problems they are seeing in their vineyards they may submit suspicious samples (via their Extension Office) to Virginia Tech's plant disease clinic.

A Glossary of Disease Terms is provided on my website at

Figure 2. Bitter rot on grapes

Figure 3. Macrophoma rot on grapes

Figure 4. Sour rot on grapes.

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Some observations on New Zealand grape/wine production

Tony Wolf, Viticulturist

I've had a remarkable opportunity over the past 6 weeks to travel and meet some of the members of the New Zealand wine and grape industry. This sojourn started with participation in the Cool Climate Viticulture and Enology Symposium in Christchurch NZ between 5 - 11 February, and has included short visits to the wine growing regions of Marlborough, the relatively new area of Wiapara here in Canterbury, and Central Otago, all of which are on the south island. This mini-Sabbatical has given me an opportunity to evaluate some of viticulture teaching at Lincoln University, to explore the potential for student exchanges, and to wrap up some projects that "followed me" from home. I wanted to give VN readers a glimpse of what I've seen and learned, without trying to write a treatise on the industry. In reality, the industry is rapidly growing and what I write in March 2006 will soon be outdated.

A bit of trivia: the antipode of Christchurch is the western part of Spain, around La Coruna. That's not to say the climate, flora or fauna are similar; it's just where you'd end up if you could bore a hole through the center of the Earth and progress to the opposite point on the globe, should the thought have crossed your mind as it did mine. And yes, it's true what you've heard about Kiwis and their fondness of sheep: there are now 4.12 million people in NZ and, as of 2003, 39.5 million sheep. Land area is about 104,000 square miles, slightly larger than Oregon and more than double the 42,769 square miles of Virginia.

New Zealand's international wine reputation sky-rocketed in the late-eighties and early nineties and grape acreage increased rapidly to today's 50,000 acres. The road to this point has not been without hardship. The initial efforts at grape production in NZ date back to the early 1800s, but the first commercial vineyard wasn't established until the time of the American civil war. Shortly thereafter, powdery mildew was first described and powdery mildew and botrytis remain the principal fungal diseases that growers face here. In the 1980s the country went through a downsizing effort in which the government invested $10 million NZ dollars (about $6.6 million US dollars at today's exchange rate) to remove about 25% of its acreage, much of it hybrid varieties that were uncompetitive in the market. The acreage of Sauvignon blanc, Chardonnay, Riesling and, more recently, Pinot noir, dramatically increased.

Challenges: On the grape production side, Kiwis face some of the same constraints that we do in Virginia, while some of our problems, like winter injury, are totally foreign here. Yield variability is a recurring problem and the reasons are manifold: spring frost, uneven bud break, poor weather during the bud initiation/development period of the previous year, and poor weather during the current season's bloom period are the more common problems. In areas and years with relatively warm winter temperature, vines may accumulate insufficient chilling exposure to completely and uniformly satisfy their dormancy. The effect is a protracted and spotty bud break in the spring which ultimately leads to variability in ripening. It rains here during the growing season and fruit ripening periods, but not nearly as much as it does in the mid-Atlantic; botrytis appears to be the only significant late-season fruit rot. Changeable weather is another issue, with strong storms possible, but infrequent, during the growing season. Hail is common, particularly with southerly and southwesterly storms that originate in Antarctica; however, the hail stones tend to be small (less than 5mm) and the squalls are generally short-lived. Nonetheless, when driven by 60 mph winds, it bloody hell hurts. Birds are the major wildlife problem and many, but not all, vineyards are netted at around veraison, with either single-row covers, multi-row covers, or complete "lock-outs" - nets that cover entire blocks and that are special-cut to order. The ubiquitous, unwelcome European starling, is one of the chief offenders (unsurprising trivia: this fowl (sic) species is quite resistant to the H5N1 avian influenza virus).

Teaching and research: Grape growers and wineries each pay separate levies on grapes and wine that is used to partially support research and marketing through a Grape Growers Council. Levies amount to about NZ$1.0 million on grape sales plus an additional NZ$1.5 million from wine. Other support comes from Ministry (i.e., federal) research programs and regional industries, such as that in Marlborough. Very basic viticulture teaching is offered by a number of regional polytechnic schools, similar to our vocational schools in the states. More in-depth, degree programs are offered by universities, such as Lincoln University on the south island, which has been a major player in the training of industry practitioners in both viticulture and enology. Research is conducted by a number of entities including federal and university labs. The Marlborough Wine Research Centre in Blenheim is one of the more recent innovations (the Centre became reality in 2004) and their faculty are involved in a wide range of field, lab and wine studies. The MWRC has research ties to the University of Auckland, Lincoln University, HortResearch and other agencies. What we consider "extension" services are offered through the Centre on a fee-based consulting service.

For many US wine consumers, the first and perhaps only impression of New Zealand wine is associated with Marlborough Sauvignon blanc, from producers such as Cloudy Bay, Montana, or Villa Maria. Since the first plantings in Marlborough in 1973, the vineyards that are flung across the Wairau and Awatere Valleys now exceed 30,000 acres and wineries in Marlborough produce 58% of NZ's wines and 70% of the wine export value. Sauvignon grape prices are currently running around $2,300 per metric tonne. At 5 tonnes/ha, growers can gross about $11,000 to $12,000 per ha, while farming at a cost of around $9,000 per hectare (all in NZ dollars, which are worth about 66% of a $US). One Blenheim grower I spoke to about economics related that his land in 1987 was valued at NZ$3,000 an acre when he planted and was now valued at NZ$45,000 per acre (acre, not hectare!). Viticulture practices in Marlborough were not too dissimilar to what we'd find in Virginia. Phylloxera is present and rootstocks 3309, 101-14 and riparia Gloire were commonly used but not exclusively. Training is typically bi-lateral, 2-cane or 4-cane systems, with the preference for canes owing to poor fertility of the basal buds with SB. Canopies are trained as VSP, shoots are hedged as needed, and vines are irrigated as needed, or as the need is imagined (irrigation scheduling is being researched). What perhaps surprised me most about the training was the fairly high shoot density, especially with the 4-cane pruning. Leaf plucking (machine) is done, but there were still lots of yellow, senescing leaves in the fruit zone with harvest a week or so away. In Virginia, it would be a recipe for botrytis. But, again, it's relatively dry in Marlborough.

The Central Otago region is closer to the south end of the south island and is a decidedly "cool" grape growing area. The heat accumulation (base of 10°C) in the Bannockburn district ranges from 1000 to 1100 in most years, but can go as high as 1300 in very "hot" years. By comparison, Winchester's thermal accumulation is about 1900 heat units while Charlottesville is a whopping 2200 units, using the Celsius scale. Rainfall is sparse - about 400 - 600 mm per year; less than half that of Winchester. I visited two vineyards in the Bannockburn district of Otago, Mt. Difficulty and Felton Road, both of which export about 60% of their production (mainly UK, Europe and North America). Both are on the outskirts of Cromwell, an important gold mining area in the late 1800s. This is wine growing on the edge: weather is changeable and frost after bloom is not unheard of. I visited about a month before harvest and there was fresh snow above 3000' on the hills around Cromwell. The area here is similar in climate, topography and horticulture to the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Wine grapes are a relatively recent introduction to what has historically been an important tree fruit production center. Mt. Difficulty is growing Chardonnay, Sauvignon, Pinot noir, Pinot gris, Riesling and some Merlot, although vineyardist James Dicey conceded that it's too cool here to dependable mature Merlot. They produce several Pinot noir labels with the cellar-door prices for the two upper-end labels around NZ$40 and NZ$75 per bottle. Good Pinot grapes fetch $3,000 to $3,500 per tonne (about US$2,200 to US$2,500/ton). A characteristic of both the Mt. Difficulty and the Felton Road Pinots was a drive towards "big", full wines which, with very ripe fruit (24-26°Brix), translated into somewhat "hot", alcoholic wines. James indicated that that is one of the viticultural challenges that he faces - getting ripe fruit flavors without the potential alcohol going through the roof. Yields are kept low, about 2.5 to 3.0 tons/acre. Labor is another chronic problem. James relies to some extent on transient workers (backpackers) who work the harvest or other labor-intensive months on short-term work permits. But the labor supply is unpredictable and generally insufficient. Pinot noir is produced elsewhere in NZ, including Martinborough and Hawkes Bay on the north island, as well as Marlborough (Dog Point 2004 is a good value at NZ$36 retail). While New Zealand Sauvignon blanc, by and large, has built a reputation on a fresh, tropical fruit/vegetative/floral - some might say "grassy" style, the Pinot noir producers still seem to be searching; that is, there does not appear to be a central style.

Aside from the wine industry, New Zealand is a Mecca for tourism and its Ministry of Tourism unabashedly promotes The Land of the Long White Cloud as a "premium" tourist destination. Despite this, or because of it, tourism figures dropped slightly last year and there are some voices in the tourist industry suggesting that more government support/promotion is needed. Food, lodging, clothing and many services are comparably priced to the US market - not a bargain, but not a rip-off either. The landscape is unspoiled, untamed and enchanting. And while the Kiwis seem to spend an inordinate amount of time coming up with "extreme" ways that tourists can attempt to kill or maim themselves, "tramping" is still essentially free, uncomplicated, and wonderfully exhausting. So get in shape before you come down. There's a wealth of information on the internet regarding NZ travel and wine/wine regions. Two books that helped give me a broader scope of the history, Maori culture, and colonization of NZ are Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel, and Tony Horwitz's Captain Cook.

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IV. Upcoming meetings

Kenner Love, Rappahannock Cooperative Extension

The following meetings are similar to those that Kenner Love and Brad Jarvis have organized in the northern piedmont in previous years. All are welcome to attend. Bring a lunch and problems or curiosities from your own vineyard for discussion. The series of meetings has been approved for recertification of individuals holding a category 90 private pesticide applicators permit. Category 90 credits will be awarded to participants that attend at least one of these meetings.

Should you have any questions about the meetings, please contact the Rappahannock Extension Office at (540) 675-3619.

Vineyard Meetings are scheduled for the following dates from 11:00 am - ~ 2:00 pm. The first hour will be a tour of the vineyard, followed by a lunch discussion. Everyone is asked to bring a bag lunch. Presentation topics may be modified slightly depending upon unique seasonal issues.

April 26th Kennedy Vineyard, Marie and John Kennedy, Owners, Huntly

Directions From Warrenton: Take 211 West for 18 miles, right on 522 North for 8 miles, right on 635; the vineyard entrance is on the left immediately past the entrance to Rappahannock Cellars.

May 10th Acorn Hill Vineyard, Jess Sweely, Owner; Oliver Asberger, Vineyard Manager, Madison

Directions From Culpeper: Take 29 South to 230 West in Madison, go ~ 1 mile past Sheetz, the drive is on the right across from Willis Road - 179 Acorn Hill Drive

June 21st Horton Vineyard and Winery (meet at the Winery ), Dennis and Sharon Horton, Gordonsville

Directions From Culpeper: Take 29 South to Ruckersville, then take a left onto 33 East, the winery is 8 miles on the left

August 9th Chateau O'Brien, Howard O'Brien, Owner; Jason Murray, Vineyard Manager, Markham

Directions From Front Royal: Take I-66 East to exit 18 Markham, turn right on Leeds Manor Rd. VA 688, cross Route 55 and turn left onto Old Markham Road, across from old Post Office, turn right onto Railstop Rd., end at 3238 Rail Stop Road, Markham

If you are a person with a disability and desire any assistive devices, services or other accommodations to participate in these activities, please contact Kenner Love at 540-675-3619 from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. to discuss accommodations five days prior to the event.

Other Regional meetings
(Thanks to Penn State extension agent Mark Chien for compiling this listing of up-coming regional events)


12-15 30th Annual Wineries Unlimited. Lancaster Host Resort. Lancaster, PA. Trade show dates: March 13-14. The largest trade show and seminar program in the East will have a special anniversary program, with Decanter Man of the Year Ernst Loosen to give keynote address and speak in seminars on the major varietal theme, Riesling. Sustainability is the conference theme, with one day workshops for newcomers (3/12) and for bottling issues (3/15). Trade show features 175 exhibitors, 250 booths. For more information and online registration, visit

14 Winemaker Technical Meeting. Lancaster Host Resort. PA. Room to be announced. 2-5 p.m. See entry for January 18. Regional wine makers are encouraged to attend and bring wines from the 2005 vintage. Problem wines are especially encouraged.

15 New Grape Grower Workshop in association with Wineries Unlimited. Host Resort. Lancaster, PA. 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. This intensive, full-day overview is directed at people who have just started a vineyard or plan to start a commercial vineyard in the Mid-Atlantic regions. It is team taught by Dr. Joe Fiola (U Md), Mark Chien (Penn State) and Fritz Westover (VA Tech). It covers all topics associated with developing and operating a commercial vineyard including site selection, grape market, vineyard economics, equipment and supplies, site preparation, varieties and rootstocks, trellis systems, disease, pest and weed control and management into the first year. Registration fee is $135 and includes lunch, breaks and handouts. Register through Penn State Coop Ext. Contact Mark Chien at 717.394.6851 for more information and registration.

19-22 Terroir 2006: A Dialogue between Earth Scientists and Winemakers. Davis, California. This international conference will explore how aspects of terroir can be studied scientifically in ways that are of use to the wine industry. Planned sessions include * What is Terroir? * Terroir Around the World * Geology, Soils, Nutrients and Terroir * Climate, Water, and Terroir * Expressions of Terroir in Vine and Grape Physiology * Marketing the Romance of Terroir * Terroir and the Sensory Characteristics of Wine * Impact of Global Climate Change * New Techniques for Studying Terroir * Terroir and Cuisine. For more information, go to

24 Tentative: Viticulture Workshop with invited speaker(s) from France and the Mid-Atlantic region addressing soil, water and vine relations. Site to be announced. Please hold the date. For more information, please call Mark Chien.

30 Lake Erie Grape Growers Convention. Fredonia State University, Fredonia, NY. Breakout sessions with information on process and wine grapes with a trade show. For information call Linda Aures at 715-672-5296 or visit .


5-7 35th Annual New York Wine Industry Workshop. NYSAES, Geneva, NY. The program includes seminars on wine marketing hosted by NY Wine and Grape Foundation and the annual Unity Dinner. Also included is a trade show and technical seminar focus on wine bottling. Information and registration at

8 Pennsylvania Association of Winegrowers Spring Vineyard Walk Around and Annual Meeting. Spyglass Hill Vineyard in Northumberland County. 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The program will have a sustainable focus with Alan York, a well-known organic consultant from Sonoma as the featured speaker. The annual meeting is an important opportunity for PA growers, independent and estate, to set the agenda for the coming year. Please join and support PAW. For more information, please visit the PAW web site at


8-10 Pennsylvania Wine Association Annual Meeting. Wyndham Hotel Harrisburg/Hershey. Harrisburg, PA. Invited speakers focus on current topics important to the PA wine industry. Enology, wine marketing and viticulture topics are all on the program. Pesticide credits available. Awards banquet and annual PWA business meeting. For information, please call Jennifer at 717-234-1844.

16/17 Erie Region Vit/Enol Workshop. Location to be announced. Offered by Penn State and Cornell. Full day of vineyard visits. Please call to get your vineyard on the schedule. Speakers include Dr. Jim Travis, Dr. Stephen Menke, Hans Walter-Peterson, Andy Muza and Mark Chien.

TBA Twilight meeting. Chester County. Vineyard to be announced. Free. No pre-registration required. Pre-bloom disease and pest control. Canopy management and weed control. Vineyard tour by owner.


7 Maryland Grape Growers' Association Field Day. Upper Marlboro UMD Center. Visit the MGGA web site for details.

25 Vineyard Management Seminar. Linden Vineyards. Linden, VA. The focus on this session is the finer points of day to day management of a producing vineyard. Canopy management to impact quality and flavors is the main emphasis. Horticultural decisions such as pruning, training, pest management and vine nutrition are also covered. Pre-registration required. Limited space.

28-30 American Society for Enology and Viticulture Annual Convention. Sacramento, CA. ASEV is the professional association of the U.S. wine industry. The focus is on viticulture and enology research with a large trade show. For more information, go to


9-12 American Society for Enology and Viticulture Eastern Section Annual Meeting. Rochester, NY. This is an important opportunity for non-western states growers to hear the latest research results from their regions include student papers and Viticulture Consortium projects. Pre-conference tour of Finger Lakes wineries is available. For more information, visit the ASEV-ES web site at


13 Advanced Wine Making Workshop. Linden Vineyards. Linden, VA. The finer points of artisan winemaking are covered is this seminar with time spent in the vineyard, cellar, classroom and tasting. Style and quality issues are the focus. Participants should have some winemaking experience or have taken the Winemaking Basics Seminar. Pre-registration required. Limited space.

17 Pennsylvania Association of Winegrowers Annual Summer Vineyard Walk Around. At the Fruit Research and Extension in Biglerville, PA. 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Tour of variety and pathology experiments run by Dr. Jim Travis and his team at FREC and tasting of research wines by extension enologist Stephen Menke. Registration and pre-registration required. Pesticide credits are available. For information, call Mark Chien or Stephen Menke.

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V. Job position announcements

Position: Full-Time, Research Associate in Viticulture

Location: Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio

Qualification and Responsibilities: MS (or BS with equivalent experience) in Horticulture, Plant Science, or closely related field is required. Viticulture degree and/or experience in commercial viticulture or viticulture research are desired. Computer-proficiency is required and comprehension of experimental design and statistical analysis is preferred. Must have a valid state driver's license, and willing to obtain a Pesticide Applicator license, and work long hours and weekends if necessary. Responsibilities will include the following: participate in the planning, design, and execution of viticulture research projects; coordinate, and conduct field experiments in research and commercial vineyards; manage field, laboratory and greenhouse experiments associated with viticulture; operate and maintain research equipment; maintain vineyard research plots including pruning and harvesting; collect and synthesize data from experimental vineyards; assist in the preparation of research reports for publication and presentation at conferences and workshops; perform other duties as assigned by Project Leader.

Application: Applications will be accepted until position is filled. To assure full consideration, applications should be received by March 26, 2006. Submit letter of interest, resume, copy of transcripts, and name, address, telephone and e-mail of at least three professional references to:

Dr. Imed Dami, Assistant Professor, Viticulture Specialist
Department of Horticulture and Crop Science
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center
1680 Madison Avenue
Wooster, OH 44691-4096


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"Viticulture Notes" is a bi-monthly newsletter issued by Dr. Tony K. Wolf, Viticulture Extension Specialist with Virginia Tech's Alson H. Smith, Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Winchester, Virginia. If you would like to receive "Viticulture Notes" as well as Dr. Bruce Zoecklein's "Vinter's Corner" by mail, contact Dr. Wolf at:

Dr. Tony K. Wolf
AHS Agricultural Research and Extension Center
595 Laurel Grove Road
Winchester, VA 22602

or e-mail:

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